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    Pictured above: Graphical abstract from the article, "Seasonal plasticity of song behavior relies on motor and syntactic variability induced by a basal ganglia–forebrain circuit," highlighted below. 

    Established in 1976, Neuroscience is the flagship journal of IBRO and is overseen by the IBRO Publications CommitteeElsevier publishes 28 issues per year. 

    The journal features papers describing the results of original research on any aspect of the scientific study of the nervous system. Any paper, however short, is considered for publication provided that it reports significant, new and carefully confirmed findings with full experimental details.

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    READ THE CURRENT ISSUE OF IBRO Neuroscience (vol. 359) published on 17 September 2017.

    Highlights from this issue include:

    Daily consumption of methylene blue reduces attentional deficits and dopamine reduction in a 6-OHDA model of Parkinson’s disease

    (Elizabeth S. Smith, Madeline E. Clark, Gwendolyn A. Hardy, David J. Kraan, Elisa Biondo, F Gonzalez-Lima, Lawrence K. Cormack, Marie Monfils, Hongjoo J. Lee)

    Recently, alternative drug therapies for Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been investigated as there are many shortcomings of traditional dopamine-based therapies including difficulties in treating cognitive and attentional dysfunction. A promising therapeutic avenue is to target mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in PD. One option might be the use of methylene blue (MB), an antioxidant and metabolic enhancer. We investigated whether MB might treat attentional deficits in a rat model of PD induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). MB also has neuroprotective capabilities against neurotoxic insult, so we also assessed the ability of MB to provide neuroprotection in our PD model. Results showed that MB might be useful in improving some attentional function and preserving dopaminergic cells in this model, and future work should continue to study and optimize the abilities of MB for the treatment of PD.

    Seasonal plasticity of song behavior relies on motor and syntactic variability induced by a basal ganglia–forebrain circuit

    (Jorge Alliende, Nicolas Giret, Ludivine Pidoux, Catherine Del Negro, Arthur Leblois)

    The plasticity of nervous systems allows animals to quickly adapt to a changing environment and is often critical to survival or mating in seasonal climates. However, the extent of neural mechanism similarity between seasonal plasticity and the well-characterized process of juvenile song learning remains unclear. Especially, it is unknown whether the basal ganglia (BG)–forebrain loop which implements song learning in juveniles by driving vocal exploration participates in seasonal plasticity. To address this issue, we performed bilateral lesions of the output structure of the song-related BG–forebrain circuit (the magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium) in canaries during the breeding season, when song is most stereotyped, and just after resuming singing in early fall, when canaries sing their most variable songs and may produce new syllable types. Our results indicate that the BG–forebrain pathway introduces acoustic and syntactic variability in song when canaries resume singing in early fall. 

    Botulinum neurotoxin A promotes functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury by increasing regeneration of myelinated fibers

    (Stefano Cobianchi, Jessica Jaramillo, Siro Luvisetto, Flaminia Pavone, Xavier Navarro)

    The injection of safe doses of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) have been reported to be useful for the treatment of neuropathic pain, but it is still unknown how functional recovery is induced after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the effects of intranerve application of BoNT/A, on regeneration and sensorimotor functional recovery in partial and complete peripheral nerve injuries in the mouse. After sciatic nerve crush (SNC) and intranerve delivery of BoNT/A (15 pg), axonal regeneration was measured by nerve pinch test at different days. Our results showed that a low dose of BoNT/A, insufficient to produce muscular dysfunction, conversely speeds up sensorimotor recovery by stimulating myelinated axonal regeneration, and points out its application as a multipotent treatment for peripheral neuropathies.