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    Pictured above: Figure 2(A) from the article, "Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with altered midbrain chemical concentrations," highlighted below. 

    Established in 1976, Neuroscience is the flagship journal of IBRO and is overseen by the IBRO Publications CommitteeElsevier publishes 28 issues per year. 

    The journal features papers describing the results of original research on any aspect of the scientific study of the nervous system. Any paper, however short, is considered for publication provided that it reports significant, new and carefully confirmed findings with full experimental details.

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    READ THE CURRENT ISSUE OF IBRO Neuroscience (vol. 363) published on 5 November 2017.

    Highlights from this issue include:

    Perspective: Endothelial cells maintain neural stem cells quiescent in their niche

    (Patrick O. Azevedo, Luiza Lousado, Ana E. Paiva, Julia P. Andreotti, Alexander Birbrair) 

    Niches are specialized microenvironments that regulate stem cells’ activity. The neural stem cell (NSC) niche defines a zone in which NSCs are retained and produce new cells of the nervous system throughout life. Understanding the signaling mechanisms by which the niche controls the NSC fate is crucial for the success of clinical applications. In a recent study, Sato and colleagues, by using state-of-the-art techniques, including sophisticated in vivo lineage-tracing technologies, provide evidence that endothelial amyloid precursor protein (APP) is an important component of the NSC niche. Strikingly, depletion of APP increased NSC proliferation in the subventricular zone, indicating that endothelial cells negatively regulate NSCs’ growth. The emerging knowledge from this research will be important for the treatment of several neurological diseases.

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with altered midbrain chemical concentrations

    (Paul M. Macey, Manoj K. Sarma, Janani P. Prasad, Jennifer A. Ogren, M. Albert Thomas)

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by altered structure and function in cortical, limbic, brainstem, and cerebellar regions. The midbrain is relatively unexamined, but contains many integrative nuclei which mediate physiological functions that are disrupted in OSA. We therefore assessed the chemistry of the midbrain in OSA in this exploratory study. We used a recently developed accelerated 2D magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-MRS) technique, compressed sensing-based 4D echo-planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (4D-EP-JRESI), to measure metabolites in the midbrain of 14 OSA (mean age ± SD:54.6 ± 10.6 years; AHI:35.0 ± 19.4; SAO2 min:83 ± 7%) and 26 healthy control (50.7 ± 8.5 years) subjects. Our results suggest that altered metabolite levels help explain dysfunction and structural deficits in the midbrain of OSA patients.

    Distinct roles of neuronal and microglial CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the mouse hippocampus

    (Yong Li, Jimok Kim)

    The effects of cannabinoids are primarily mediated by type-1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain and type-2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2Rs) in the peripheral immune system. However, recent evidence demonstrates that CB2Rs are also expressed in the brain and implicated in neuropsychiatric effects. Diverse types of cells in various regions in the brain express CB2Rs but the cellular loci of CB2Rs that induce specific behavioral effects have not been determined. To manipulate CB2R expression in specific types of cells in the dorsal hippocampus of adult mice, we used Cre-dependent overexpression and CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing techniques in combination with adeno-associated viruses and transgenic mice. Our targeted manipulation of CB2R expression in pyramidal neurons and microglia suggests that CB2Rs in different types of cells in the mature hippocampus play distinct roles in the regulation of memory and anxiety.