Pictured above: Figure 1 from the article, "The shared neural basis of music and language," highlighted below.
The journal features papers describing the results of original research on any aspect of the scientific study of the nervous system. Any paper, however short, is considered for publication provided that it reports significant, new and carefully confirmed findings with full experimental details.
READ THE CURRENT ISSUE OF IBRO Neuroscience (vol. 357) published on 15 August 2017.
Highlights from this issue include:
(Kelly M. Moench, Cara L. Wellman)
Chronic stress produces differential dendritic remodeling of pyramidal neurons in medial prefrontal cortex of male and female rats. In males, this dendritic remodeling is reversible. However, the timeline of recovery, as well as the potential for reversibility in females, is unknown. Here, we examined dendritic recovery of pyramidal neurons in layer II-II of prelimbic cortex in male and female rats following chronic restraint stress (3 h/day for 10 days). Our findings not only indicate that dendritic remodeling in prelimbic cortex following chronic stress is different between males and females, but also suggest chronic stress induces differential hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysregulation in males and females. These differences may have important implications for responses to subsequent stressors.
(Mengxia Yu, Miao Xu, Xueting Li, Zhencai Chen, Yiying Song, Jia Liu)
Human musical ability is proposed to play a key phylogenetical role in the evolution of language, and the similarity of hierarchical structure in music and language has led to considerable speculation about their shared mechanisms. While behavioral and electrophysioglocial studies have revealed associations between music and linguistic abilities, results from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on their relations are contradictory, possibly because these studies usually treat music or language as single entities without breaking down to their components. Our study revealed the shared spontaneous neural basis of music and language based on the behavioral link between melodic analysis and semantic processing, which possibly relied on a common mechanism of automatic auditory-motor integration.
(Víctor Manuel Magdaleno-Madrigal, Gerardo Contreras-Murillo, Israel Camacho-Abrego, José Vicente Negrete-Díaz, Alejandro Valdés-Cruz, Rodrigo Fernández-Mas, Salvador Almazán-Alvarado, Gonzalo Flores)
Dysfunction of thalamo-cortical networks involving particularly the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is implicated in schizophrenia. In the neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL), a heuristic animal model of schizophrenia, brain oscillation changes similar to those of schizophrenic patients have been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the thalamic reticular nucleus on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in the NVHL. Our results suggest that DBS in the TRN may modify functional connectivity between different parts of the thalamo-cortical network. Additionally, our findings may suggest a beneficial effect of DBS-TRN on some preclinical aberrant oscillatory activities in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.
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