Pictured above: Figure 2 from the article, "Interneurons secrete prosaposin, a neurotrophic factor, to attenuate kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity," featured below.
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READ featured articles from Volume 3, December 2017 below
(Margabandhu Gopi, Arambakkam Janardhanam Vanisree)
Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neurodegeneration, is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and loss of motor co-ordination. Impaired metabolism of major lipids such as phospholipids which play regulatory roles in cellular functions and signaling has been implicated in the pathology of PD. We aim to investigate the striatal phospholipids (PLs) in hemiparkinsonism infused by rotenone in rats. As there are no cost-effective modes of PL, we have utilized dye-lipid complex technique for the first time in PD models for screening and also for semi-quantifying (individually) the levels of the deregulated PL in brain samples. Our finding implies that a critical role is being played by these PLs (PC, PI and SM) mainly PI (p < 0.001), in rotenone infused hemiparkinsonism, thus deserving wider but simpler investigations to detect and identify their role in parkinsonism.
(Toshikazu Kakizaki, Hiroyuki Sakagami, Kenji Sakimura, Yuchio Yanagawa)
Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brainstem and spinal cord. Glycine transporter 2 (GLYT2) is responsible for the uptake of extracellular glycine. GLYT2 is specifically expressed in glycinergic neurons and thus has been used as a marker of glycinergic neurons. Here, we generated GLYT2 promotor-driven Cre recombinase (Cre)-expressing mice (GLYT2-Cre knock-in mice) to develop a tool for manipulating gene expression in glycinergic neurons. We found that Cre activity is specifically localized to glycinergic neurons with high fidelity in the GLYT2-Cre knock-in mice, and that the GLYT2-Cre knock-in mouse line will be a useful tool for studying glycinergic neurons and neurotransmission.
(Hiroaki Nabeka, Shouichiro Saito, Xuan Li, Tetsuya Shimokawa, Md. Sakirul Islam Khan, Kimiko Yamamiya, Soichiro Kawabe, Takuya Doihara, Fumihiko Hamada, Naoto Kobayashi, Seiji Matsuda))
Prosaposin (PS) is a secretory neurotrophic factor, as well as a regulator of lysosomal enzymes. We previously reported the up-regulation of PS and the possibility of its axonal transport by GABAergic interneurons after exocitotoxicity induced by kainic acid (KA), a glutamate analog. In the present study, we performed double immunostaining with PS and three calcium binding protein markers: parvalbumin (PV), calbindin, and calretinin, for the subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons, and clarified that the increased PS around the hippocampal pyramidal neurons after KA injection existed mainly in the axons of PV positive interneurons. Our results were similar to those from the choroid plexus, which secretes an intact form PS + 0 to the cerebrospinal fluid. Neurons, especially PV positive GABAergic interneurons, produce and secrete the intact form of PS around hippocampal pyramidal neurons to protect them against KA neurotoxicity.